Changes to the electoral system, promised by the power party during the protests in June 2019, included a shift from the currently proportional to the fully proportional electoral system in the 2020 parliamentary elections.
“European Georgia” is a parliamentary opposition party formed after several leaders of the “United National Movement” split from the party in January 2017. One of the leaders of the newly formed party, the secretary general of the party G. Ugulava, described the split of the “United National Movement” as saying: “M. Saakashvili is no longer the actual leader of the party and takes responsibility for the division of the party.
The “United National Movement” is a former power party that is currently in parliamentary opposition with six MPs mandates. The party was formed in October 2001, after its founder and leader, M. Saakashvili, quit his office in Giorgi Arsenishvili's government, resigned as minister of justice, and withdrew from power, the “Georgia Civic Union”.
Slightly less than a year before the parliamentary elections scheduled for October 31, 2020, the situation in Georgia is politically unstable, protests against parliamentary decisions have taken place in the country, social and economic problems have increased, and crime has increased significantly.
The scope of this study precludes an in-depth look at the attitudes of former Ukrainian presidents and heads of government to democratic processes and an in-depth assessment of possible authoritarian tendencies in the country over a longer period of time. Further the emphasis is placed on the decisions made by the present President V.Zelensky since the start of his Presidency. The issues are discussed of dismissal of senior officials of the public administration and the appointment of new persons, the adoption of certain significant and ambiguous decisions, as well as trends characterizing V.Zelensky and the presidential team.
In the summer of 2016, Maxim Rathushny, a coordinator of the Ukrainian-based Mass Media Institute, coordinator of the "Media Management Monitoring" project, concluded: "A scrupulous study of the Ukrainian mass media sector has led to the clear conclusion that Ukrainians live in a state ruled by tycoons. In a system where business can only exist through links to politics and vice versa.
Today, authoritarian tendencies are prevalent in all countries around the world, including several European countries. Such tendencies, however, do not automatically indicate the existence of an authoritarian system and a definite move towards an undemocratic state. In countries that were until recently considered to be deeply democratic, "deviations from the habitual order of things" are obvious, but for the present it is too early to draw conclusions about the rise of authoritarianism. Examples include the United States, Great Britain, Austria, as well as a number of Eastern and Central European countries where in the political spectrum isolationist, conservative and radical forces are gaining popularity.
In July 2019, “Current Time” reported that the total value of the family property of the Chief of the AF General Staff (GS), Valery Gerasimov, is in the range of 100-150 million RUB (1.5 million EUR - 2.1 million EUR). By comparison, according to the statement, V. Gerasimov earns an average of around 2.9 million RUB (42,000 EUR) a year, while his wife just over 167,000 RUB (2,364 EUR). However, as noted by “Current Time”, V. Gerasimov can be called an “ascetic” compared to Defence Minister S. Shoigu and his deputies, R. Calikov and T. Ivanov, whose total value of family property is estimated at 4.6 billion RUB (65 million EUR).
In 2011, “Novaya Gazeta” published a list of the most corrupt Russian ministries in 2010, where the Ministry of Defence was ranked as the most corrupt, Ministry of Transport was ranked second, and the Ministry of Economic Development was third. The misappropriation of budget funds allocated to ministries is largely done through the public procurement system.
Corruption (derived from the Latin word “corruption”- “damaging”, “bribing”) is the use of official position to serve the interests of oneself or connected parties, and relates to the corruptibility of officials. According to the Council of Europe, corruption is bribery or any other act concerning persons entrusted with public or private responsibility that breaches their duty for the purpose of obtaining personal benefits.
OVD-Info data testify that in this year’s summer protests in Moscow around 3,200 persons were detained. Of these approximately 3,000 were prosecuted under Article 20.2 of the Administrative Violations Code (AVC) for violations of the rules on the organization of meetings, rallies, demonstrations, marches and pickets. This Article has been revised three times in its history (introduced in 2001), making it more stringent.
In summer 2019 in Moscow the campaign for support of unregistered opposition candidates for the elections of Moscow City Council were the most active political protest actions in Russia in recent years. During summer weekends all records were broken for peoples’ participation in protests and the amount of the detained.