The primacy of modern-day Russian Armed Forces can actually be attributed to the military doctrine adopted in November 1993, which incorporated the idea of modernizing the army. In practice, however, in the 1990s the Russian army relied on Soviet structures, full of severe economic problems and corruption. Beginning with the reforms of the Minister of Defense Sergei Ivanov in 2001, the Russian Armed Forces began moving towards the introduction of a contract service.
Beginning already in the 1970s, known as the period of stagnation in the context of the Soviet economy, the USSR was experiencing a burgeoning crisis of Marxist Leninist ideology, manifesting itself in the inadequacy of Bolshevik basic principles to address everyday realities, increasing corruption in all spheres of the country, as well as a technological gap compared to the Western countries. With the liberalization of the USSR economy in the mid-1980s, a rapid demise of the socialist bloc began, resulting in the collapse of the communist regimes in Eastern Europe. In the case of Russia, until the mid-1990s, the new power followed a liberal and pro-Western political course.
The political “rebirth” of A. Navalny was in 2011, when a mass protest movement against the falsification of the results of the State Duma elections began in Russia. Back in early 2011 (the elections were held in December), an oppositionist on radio broadcast made the famous and widely circulated phrase that “Edinaya Rossiya” is a party of fraudsters and thieves.
Lawyer and public activist Alexei Navalny was born in 1976 in the Moscow region. In 1998, he graduated from the Law Faculty People's Friendship University of Russia and in 2001 from the Finance Academy under the Russian Government, specializing in securities and stock exchange transactions. In 2010, following the suggestion of a number of public activists Garry Kasparov, Yevgeny Albaca and others, A. Navalny studied for a semester at Yale University as part of the “Yale World Fellows” program.
According to the Kyrgyzstan-China agreement on border delimitation, in 1996 and 1999, Bishkek lost about 1,250 square kilometres of land, and later another 161 square kilometres, under a supplementary agreement with Beijing. Responsibility for concluding the agreement was placed on the then Foreign Minister, Muratbek Imanaliev, who was subsequently dismissed.
At the end of 2018 and at the beginning of 2019, anti-China rallies took place in Bishkek, demanding a break from the “Chinese expansion”, refusal to grant Kyrgyz citizenship to the Chinese, expulsion of illegal guest workers from China and cancellation of the Republic's debt to China.
S. Zurabishvili, when becoming a president, said that the time for cooperation between Tbilisi and Moscow has not yet come.
In August 2018, the Georgian media reported that the 66-year-old former Foreign Minister of Georgia, then Independent Member, could be the presidential candidate backed by the “Georgia Dream - Democratic Georgia” power party. This report soon received additional credence, when it was confirmed by the fact that S. Zurabishvili had renounced French nationality (S. Zurabishvili had French and Georgian citizen), indicating that she was preparing for the presidential election.
The process of religion “revival” in Tajikistan had become one of the reasons for the civil war (1992-1997). The demands of democracy and political freedom were closely related to the idea of freedom of religion, and radical forces also wanted to change the secular structure of Tajikistan. The search for compromises were successful only after years of hostilities, and the ceasefire rules provided for armed Islamic militants to put down weapons, in exchange for various positions in government and seats in parliament.
In Central Asia, an increase in Islam’s significance has been observed; specifically, after the collapse of the USSR, when the new countries were seeking a new ideology to unite their nations. Historically, the countries of the region were linked to Muslim culture (especially Uzbekistan), and people had retained their religiosity. As a consequence, Central Asia is a “mellow soil” for the activities of various Islamic movements, groupings and other organizations, that search for and want to attract new supporters.
According to Russia's federal budget for 2019-2020, national defence spending in 2019 is projected to be 2.9 trillion RUB (44.7 billion USD), or 16.2% of total budget expenditure (2.8% of GDP). In nominal terms, expenditure will increase by 145.4 billion RUB, or 3.1% compared to 2018. In 2020, defence spending will be 3 trillion RUB (46.5 billion USD), or 16.3% of total budget expenditure (2.7% of GDP), and RUB 3.1 trillion (48.3 billion USD) in 2021 or 16.6% of budget expenditure (2.7% of GDP).
The Russian federal budget is a key element of the Russian budget system. The federal budget is drawn up by the government and adopted by parliament as a federal law. The budget code of the Russian Federation regulates the procedure of budgeting and execution. The federal budget is a large part of the distribution process, which manifests itself in the redistribution of funds between sectors of the economy and regions of the country.