Serbian sociologist Z. Miloshevich points out that since 2004, foreign media have called the new Russian ideology as putinism, but already in 2005, putinism became a “nationalistically authoritarian form of government in Russia with external attributes of democracy and market economy”, which has more common with fascism instead of communism (Richard V. Rens). About putinism’s cornerstones Z. Miloshevich considers V. Putin's economy, politics (“sovereign democracy”), foreign policy, and so on.
Contemporary Russian political regimes are defined differently – both justifiably and unjustifiably – using quite broad terminology, as well as by comparing the current Russian regime to historical political regimes in Russia and other countries.
Since the January 1, 2019, when the former US Secretary of Defence James Mattis left his post, the duties of defence secretary were served by his deputy Patrick Shanahan.
In foreign policy, D. Trump attaches great importance to personal contacts. For example, the US President has repeatedly emphasized that he has developed friendly relations with Chinese leader Xi Jinping. When, on December 22, 2017, all members of the UN Security Council, including China, voted for new sanctions against North Korea, the US President was absolutely convinced that this had happened because of his good relationship with Xi.
The United States of America is considered to be the only modern global superpower whose decisions largely influence the development processes of different regions of the world, including European and post-Soviet space. Thus, it is not surprising, that US domestic political agenda pays attention not only in the United States itself, but also in other parts of the world.
In the context of the growing confrontation between the US and Russia, the Syrian issue also became topical. In Russia, its increasing military presence and engagement in the Syrian government forces were propagated as an alternative to the US-led coalition against “Daesh”. According to experts, the possibility of Russia's involvement in the Syrian civil war was caused by the US's inability to deter and subsequently punish the government of Bashar al-Assad for the use of chemical weapons in the summer of 2013.
Political observers often mention Russian President Vladimir Putin's speech at the Munich Security Conference in 2007 as a point of reference for the current tension between the US and Russia. V. Putin's statement made Russia's future intentions clear: to return to the world of big players of global politics, creating new challenges for the US-supervised world order that formed after the collapse of the Soviet Union.
Tajikistan is the largest debtor in Central Asia to China. Dushanbe debt to Beijing reaches almost half (47.3%) of the country's external debt - 1.2 billion USD (the total external debt is over 2.8 billion USD, which is 36% of the country's GDP).
According to a specialist assessment, the growing dependence of some Central Asian countries on Chinese loans in the long term could create a threat to their independence.
On October 10, Russian Energy Minister Alexander Novak declared that Russia would no longer export petroleum products to Belarus, including gasoline, diesel, fuel oil (the oil that Belarus is processing in oil products itself will continue to be supplied). According to the news agency “Reuters”, liquefied natural gas will not be supplied to Belarus either.
A new relationship crisis between Russia and Belarus has developed since the end of the summer of 2018, when as a result of a lengthy discussion, the ex-Russian security services official Mikhail Babich was confirmed as the new Russian ambassador to Belarus. It was highlighted in December 2018 at the highest official level in both countries, that the issue of “deep integration” was taken very seriously: Moscow was increasingly pushing Belarusian President Alexander Lukashenko into a corner.
Y. Boyko was born in 1958 in Horlivka (Donetsk Oblast, east of the country), graduated from Moscow Institute of Chemical and Technological Sciences and National University of East Ukraine, acquiring an education in chemistry-technology and engineering-economics respectively.